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What is the differences between mitosis and Meiosis?

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The difference between mitosis and Meiosis is one of the most popular questions in school. And that’s perhaps the real million-dollar question because students are often perplexed and confused by biology’s two fundamental processes. In detail, mitosis is a process of asexual cell division in which two daughter cells with the same genes originate from a single mother cell. What is the differences between mitosis and Meiosis? In this context, we will clear you soon.

Getting Know: What is the differences between mitosis and Meiosis?

 To achieve this, the first phase of mitosis involves the duplication of the cell nucleus and the simultaneous reproduction of chromosomes, and therefore of the DNA, which will give rise to pairs of sister chromatids. In the final phase of mitosis, the sister chromatids will separate, migrate in opposite directions, and be enclosed within the new nuclei. 

 

 

The result will be the formation of two cells containing the same genetic information. Meiosis is instead defined as a process of sexual reproduction because it takes place in the reproductive organs. The phases of Meiosis are identical to mitosis but repeated twice.

This leads to four different cells. 

In the first meiotic phase, the chromosomes are duplicated to form pairs of homologous chromosomes that undergo the crossing over process instead of immediately separating. In other words, they exchange portions of DNA. After the exchange, the chromosomes separate, giving life to two daughter cells that will undergo a second division. So that a total of 4 haploid cells will be formed, that is, with halved chromosomal equipment.

 

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The haploid cells are the gametes which, in men and women, correspond respectively to spermatozoa and oocytes, which, thanks to fertilization, will join their chromosomal set. 

Few fundamental things that you should know

It is easy to understand that the difference between mitosis and Meiosis is fundamental because it leads to different functions. Mitosis allows the reproduction of single-celled organisms such as bacteria or yeasts and enables the reproduction of somatic cells (cells of the body), favoring cell renewal. Meiosis, on the other hand, is crucial for genetic variability and the formation of new individuals.

When does mitosis occur, and when does Meiosis occur?

The cells of our body renew themselves continuously, and they do so by exploiting mitosis. 

Mitosis and Meiosis – two different processes

Mitosis and Meiosis are both processes of reproducing eukaryotic cells, but it is wrong to combine them. The reason? These are two different processes.

What is the difference between mitosis and Meiosis?

In summary:

  • With mitosis, two utterly identical daughter cells obtained from one parent cell.
  • With Meiosis, four haploid daughter cells obtained from a diploid parent cell, so the resulting daughter cells different from the parent cell.
  • Mitosis affects all somatic cells of the body
  • Meiosis affects gametes (cells with reproductive function)

Let’s go to the definitions and start with Meiosis.

Meiosis when a eukaryotic cell with a diploid chromosomal set gives rise to four cells with a haploid chromosomal location. Meiosis a process of cell division aimed at sexual reproduction, as it leads to gametes’ formation.

What does it mean?

That starts with a mother cell with a complete chromosomal set, and four daughter cells are obtained, which have a halved chromosomal location. In the human , the starting mother cell 46 chromosomes, and with Meiosis, four daughter cells with 23 chromosomes obtained.

When does Meiosis happen?

Meiosis is the process of reproduction of the sex cells, that is, the gametic cell. In our body, we all have diploid cells (i.e., with 46 chromosomes), except for the material intended for our sexual reproduction (i.e., oocyte or egg cell in women and sperm in men).

The gametes haploid chromosomal makeup that “halved” (they have 23 chromosomes). It also understood as a situation. You know well that you ” the fruit of the union of your biological parents” each one gave 50% of the genetic material needed for your training.

Some important term

The gametes have a halved kit because it will form a “complete” kit (diploid) when it joins with the other complementary gametes. In practice, “egg cell + sperm” = the first diploid cell in your body. At the moment of fertilization, the two haploid gametes put the two chromosomal sets in common and form the zygote, the human being’s first diploid cell! They are the very first cell that includes the new individual!

When does mitosis occur?

After the union of the two gametes is completing (with fertilization) from this moment on. The cells will reproduce by mitosis. As stated, Meiosis only affects the sex cells. To understand the difference between mitosis and Meiosis. Let’s start immediately by saying that they are both mechanisms that allow cell division. Still, they do it with very different phases and results.

Final word on What is the differences between mitosis and Meiosis?

Descriptively, Meiosis 2 (or Meiosis II) is identical to mitosis. The difference between the two processes lies in Meiosis I (or meiosis 1). In Meiosis, there is a reduction of the chromosomal makeup. We have a double copy of our genetic makeup. This is why we have 46 chromosomes. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes. So two identical copies. The topic,”what is the differences between mitosis and meiosis?” will be clear if you are following it properly. In this article, we were trying to discuss all the matters properly. After all, if you have any asks let me know via email; comment below the post.

 

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